Posture/ TMD/ Occlusion

Cranio. 2005 Apr;23(2):119-29.
The influence of an experimentally-induced malocclusion on vertebral alignment in rats: a controlled pilot study.

D’Attilio M, Filippi MR, Femminella B, Festa F, Tecco S.

Department of Orthodontics, University of Chieti, Italy.


There is a growing interest in the relationship between occlusion and posture because of a greater incidence of neck and trunk pain in patients with occlusal dysfunction. The study was designed to verify whether an alteration of the spinal column alignment may be experimentally induced in rats as a consequence of altering dental occlusion and also to investigate whether the spinal column underwent any further changes when normal occlusion was then restored. Thirty rats were divided into two groups. Fifteen (15) rats (test group) wore an occlusal bite pad made of composite resin on the maxillary right first molar for a week (T1). The same rats wore a second composite bite pad for another week on the left first molar in order to rebalance dental occlusion (T2). Fifteen rats were included in an untreated control group. All the rats underwent total body radiographs at T0 (before the occlusal pad was placed), at T1 (one week after application of a resin occlusal bite pad on the maxillary left first molar) and at T2 (one week after application of a second resin occlusal bite pad on the maxillary right first molar). A scoliotic curve developed in all the test rats at T1. There were no alterations of spinal position observed in any of the control rats. Additionally, the spinal column returned to normal condition in 83% of the test rats when the balance in occlusal function was restored. The alignment of the spinal column seemed to be influenced by the dental occlusion.

Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol. ;44 (1):10-3

Correlation between interdental occlusal plane and plantar arches. An EMG study.

 B Valentino, F Melito, B Aldi, T Valentino
Dipartimento di Anatomia Umana, Facoltà di Medicina, Università di Napoli II, Italia.
The Authors carried out an experimental study on a homogeneous group of young people to provide evidence of functional correlation among masticatory muscles and, indirectly, between changes to the interdental occlusal plane and modifications of the plantar arches due to talipes valgus and flat foot. In the two analysed conditions, the masticatory muscles undergo different functional alterations. This is due to the fact that the mechanoreceptors in the tendons of the muscles governing the plantar arch configuration are stimulated in different ways during the activation of long osteoarthromuscular chains. Dental specialists will have to take these correlation into account when diagnosing TMJ disorders.
Keywords: plantar; occlusal plane; interdental; occlusal; emg; arche; plane; masticatory; masticatory muscle; muscle; tmj; flat foot; correlation; plantar arch; tendon;
Clinics. 2009 Feb ;64 (1):35-9

Global body posture evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder.
Eliza Tiemi Saito, Paula Marie Hanai Akashi, Isabel de Camargo Neves Sacco
Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS: Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder.

Eur J Orthod. 2007 Feb;29(1):100-4.

Associations between orthopaedic disturbances and unilateral crossbite in children with asymmetry of the upper cervical spine.

Korbmacher H, Koch L, Eggers-Stroeder G, Kahl-Nieke B.
Department of Orthodontics, Center of Dental and Oral Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.


The objective of the present study was to detect possible associations between unilateral crossbite and orthopaedic disturbances in children with asymmetry of the upper cervical spine. Fifty-five children aged 3-10 years (22 girls and 33 boys) with a unilateral crossbite and 55 gender- and age-matched children with a symmetric occlusion but no crossbite, who served as the control group, were selected from an orthopaedic cohort of 240 patients. In all children, asymmetry of the upper cervical region was confirmed by radiographs and palpation. The following orthopaedic aspects were investigated: oblique shoulder and pelvis, scoliosis, functional leg length difference, and laxity of ligaments of the foot. The differences between the groups were analysed by means of an unpaired t-test. An increased occurrence of orthopaedic parameters in the frontal plane was observed in children with a unilateral malocclusion. A unilateral crossbite was not necessarily combined with a pathological orthopaedic variable, but statistically, children with a unilateral malocclusion showed more often an oblique shoulder (P = 0.004), scoliosis (P = 0.04), an oblique pelvis (P = 0.007), and a functional leg length difference (P = 0.002) than children with symmetry. The results suggest that a unilateral crossbite in children with asymmetry of the upper cervical spine is associated with orthopaedic disturbances. There is no evidence of a causal link.

Clinics vol.64 no.1 São Paulo Jan. 2009
The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture
Antonino Cuccia; Carola Caradonna
Department of Oral Sciences, University of Palermo – Palermo/Italy.

In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.